Liquid Sample Introduction

In working with solutions, they must be converted to fine spray or aerosol via a nebulizer.  This is similar to what happens when you spray a squirt bottle filled with water, although the droplets need to be much smaller.  The three main types include:
1.  An ultrasonic nebulizer uses ultrasound waves to “boil” a solution flowing across a piezoelectric transducer (disc).
2.  A
pneumatic nebulizer uses high pressure gas to entrain a solution.  There are several variables that one must consider in using/selecting a nebulizer.
3.  A ceramic nebulizer uses high pressure gas to entrain a solution into a mist.  The figure below shows that the analyte solution forms a mist with the carrier gas and goes to the emission source.

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